Elementary school Andrei Saguna from Toplita is located in one residential district called “Valley” , at a distance of approximately 4 km from the city center , on the road connecting Toplita and Borsec.
In the year 1994 a new modern building was put into service. It was equipped with four classrooms and a laboratory. Now the gymnasium courses ( with pupils from 5th to 8th form) are held here .
Primary school ( pupils from 1st to 4th form) courses are held in old building where there was arranged a museum, a sports hall and a auditorium. The school has a sports base used for many sports activities.
Due to adequate spaces of education, as well as the endowment with furniture and technical equipment, our unit offers the possibility to develop the educational process to the effective quota and, of course , other activities related to curricular areas stipulated in the curriculum.
At the beginning there were two building of the edifice , one located at about 3 Km from the present location, toward village Secu, bearing the name of the Upper Valley School. There were 3 primary classes with a teacher. With the increase in birth rate as well as due of relocation of families from other areas, the school building became larger by by adding a new construction. Thus was founded Primary School no. 1 with grades I-IV, which operates until approximately in the year 1945, when a gymnasium was founded here, too.
Since 1 January 2005, as a result of the restructuring of education of Harghita County, the General School No. 1 is assigned , as another structure , the School with classes I-VIII, situated in the Calimanel district.
In the summer of 2008, fully renovated in structure situated in the district Calimanel, moving there and. Also, the school was named: Andrei Saguna after the great Metropolitan of Transylvania. Beginning with the 2012-2013 school year, the school took 2 kindergartens “„Dumbrava Minunata” and ” Dealului “, changing the name in the Secondary School “Andrei Saguna” Topliţa.
As many other places (localities) in the country, the foundation of Topliţa city has a version, which is a legend. Thus it is said that an old Queen lived in this area, along with his two sons, Caliman and Gurghiu. A ruthless king called Iezer lived beyond the mountains. He came with his army and tried to conquer and subdue the Queen’s kingdom. The battles that were fought Caliman, the eldest son, was killed and Gurghiu’s vengeance ended with the murder of Iezer, right in the place where his brother was killed.
Mourning her dead son, Queen shed floods of hot tears so that all the springs around the castle were filled with warm water and since then the groundwater of these places are warm. In memory of the brave hero fallen in battle, the mountains from the north were called Călimani. After a while, people have noticed that in the place where Iezer was killed a stream gushed and formed a waterhole clear and cold as ice. But this waterhole spread a bad smell in its flowing to the valley. Locals have named the waterhole Iezer and the stream was called Puturosu. Saddened by the death of her son, Queen passed away and was buried on the highest crest near the castle, that crest was named Old Woman (currently the crest of the same name).
The legend says that after he complained to his mother, Gurghiu heard that at the Court of his former enemy lives Topliţa, a very beautiful girl and asked her to marry him and, after a fairy-tale wedding they have lived hapilly for many years. When the two have passed away, in their memory, the people named Topliţa the town which blossomed between the mountains. Also they called Gurghiu the mountains from the south, where the old Queen was buried in.
Toponymic “Topliţa” is Slavic, meaning hot water spring. The natural beauty, friendly people and the presence of historical monuments are only a few reasons why the Topliţa and its surroundings deserves to be visited and known.
The appearance of human life in Topliţa area dates back to the Middle Paleolithic. During the Dacian Kingdom on current territory of Northern Harghita County fortresses were built for surveillancing the surrounding valleys. In Toplita area there was the fortress Sangidava which was located by Ptolemy on the upper Mures. Until now, the traces of this city haven’t been identified, that’s why some historians placed it near or on the site of the present city Topliţa. During the Roman domination, the current territory of Toplita and its surroundings were part of the province of Dacia.
The oldest documentary testimony about Toplita is a map from the year 1382. It appears from this map that the settlement is located at the contact between the mountain, meadow and sunny slopes, at a distance of swampy areas near the river. In the middle of 15th century the center of city was at the confluence of the river Mures with river Topliţa, in front of the pass (defile). Subsequently, its territory extended upstream on the Toplita Valley and on the left bank of the Mures River. During that time, Topliţa belonged to Gheorgheni Székely seat, , taking advantage of a wide, administrative, military and legal autonomy.
Picture of main street in 1903 (Photo from the personal collection Cziriak Karoly)
After 1990, economic activity was reshaped, in 2002 there were a total of 5 economical societies with state capital, 450 SRL s (private economic societies), 150 AFs (Family businesses) and 184 independent – activity (self -employed ) societies. The tourist activity encouraged the development of the city because of its natural landscape. Hotel “Caliman” which had 130 seats, was opened in 1983. Now it has been closed for nine years and in the abandonment due to financial disputes, but tourist services and accomodation are offered by private pensions. Administrative-household work on water supply of the city ended in 1975, then the alimentation network was dubbled and currently extended into Zencani district.
With the increasing of inhabitants’ number , education has progressed continuously, too , from the first monastery school of the seventeenth century led by Vasile Sturza monk to Romanian school in 1858, which had 161 students and Mark Briciu was the teacher. Today there are ten kindergartens, eight schools, The “OC Tăslăuanu” High School, National College “Mihai Eminescu” and two post-secondary schools.
According to the 1857 census for Transylvania Toplita seemed to have at that time: 524 owners of earth, 8 industrialists, 5 traders, 328 farmers, 11 officials and 3 priests. Same census mentioned $629 houses with a total of 3117 inhabitants. In 1880 population of Toplita city recorded 4276 inhabitants record in 942 houses.
The number of resident population followed an upward trend, it comprised 11,856 inhabitants in 1970, 12,793 inhabitants in 1975 and 14,347 in 1979. According to the 1992 census Topliţa’s population comprised almost 18,000 inhabitants but in 2002 the number of inhabitants declined dramatically to 16.631 inhabitants.
Structure of population by nationality in 2002 (census)
After administrative-territorial reorganization in 1950 Topliţa become an urban center and in 2002 the city was declared a municipality.
The culture of the city is closely linked to developments in the locality, among the peoples of these places counting Miron Cristea (1868-1939), the first Patriarch of Romania (1925-1939), Octavian Codru Taslauanu, writer and publicist (editor of the magazine “Luceafarul”, ), Dumitru Emilian Antal, Bishop of Arges county, the musicologist George Sbarcea (born in the year 1914), author of the study entitled “habits, songs, and magical games in Toplita” ), but also the famous champion in gymnastics, Marius Urzica, who lives in Bucharest now.
After the Second World War the resort has entered into the ownership and management of state and suffered a large and complex process of modernization. Old rudimentary pools, in which mesothermal water springs were captured, were replaced with concrete pools. There were built mansions, holiday cottages, bungalows and a restaurant. A sports base which brings together land for volleyball, basketball, handball and tennis, offers the possibility to practice these sports throughout the year as well as ski and sledding. The resort has become a place of refuge and relaxation for city dwellers, for those in the neighborhood, but for tourists coming from hundreds of miles away, knowing the period of maximum development.
Sports-tourism services occupy a very important place in the complementary activities. As well as the recreational activities, sports activities take place both inside some sights, as well as in the open air, gathering amateurs and beginners, and camps and organized training for advanced athletes and performance, too. Depending on local and formulas adopted by providers, programs can be significantly differentiated.
From this point of view and thus Topliţa resort “Bradul” offers tourists opportunities for sporting activities both in the summer and especially in winter.
In the city there are three sports halls, a grassy field and three a plot of land of lawn and three plots of land for smaller sizes covered with slag,, two tennis courts, a basketball and a handball court. There are also two Olympic-sized swimming pools with mesothermal water, one located in the resort called “Bánffy” and the other in the city, near the Mures Valley, called “Urmanczy”. In the summer there are organized swimming courses for beginners under the guidance of specialised teachers.
In the winter period the three ski slopes which are located in the city are in great request. Two of them are equipped with installations of transport on the cable and one of these will have the advantage of an installation of night vision goggles.
Toplita city today
From the economic point of view the impact of tourist activities in the area is positive although the benefits size, both for entrepreneurs and the local budget of the town, is one rather restricted, it not allowing new investment of financial resources in other objectives that are found to be very necessary.